The six major powers involved in the nuclear negotiations with Iran were part of a group known as the P5-1: the five permanent members of the UN Security Council – China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States – and Germany. The nuclear agreement is also enshrined in a UN Security Council resolution that it has incorporated into international law. The 15 members of the Council unanimously approved the agreement. On 17 August 2015, a group of 75 arms control and nuclear non-proliferation experts issued a joint statement in support of the agreement. [241] [242] The statement states: “The JCPOA is a powerful, Long-term and verifiable agreement, which will be a clearer one for international nuclear non-proliferation efforts” and that “the strict restrictions and transparency measures of the JCPOA will make it highly likely that all future efforts by Iran to pursue nuclear weapons, even a secret program, will be immediately unveiled, providing the opportunity to intervene decisively to prevent Iran from acquiring a nuclear weapon.” [241] [242] The letter was organized by the bipartisan Arms Control Association. [242] Among the 75 signatories were Valérie Plame and Joseph C. Wilson; former Director General of the IAEA, Mr. Blix; Morton H. Halperin; and experts from the Brookings Institution, the Stimson Center and other think tanks. [241] On September 3, an open letter was issued to Obama, signed by 56 people, in which the JCPOA was criticized as “unverifiable.” The letter says, “Guided by our experience with U.S. and foreign nuclear weapons programs – as well as by the history and practice of arms control, non-proliferation and intelligence services, we indeed consider the current JCPOA to be very bad.” [243] Among the signatories was Boykin; Bolton; Former CIA Director James Woolsey, former National Security Adviser Robert McFarlane; Paula A. DeSutter, former Assistant Secretary of State for Audit, Compliance and Implementation; several former ACDA officials; and former President/Director of Sandia National Laboratories, C. Paul Robinson.

[243] The Joint Comprehensive Action Plan (JCPOA); Persian: romantic: barn`meye I`e`me moshtarak (, BARJAM][5] is an agreement on Iran`s nuclear programme reached on 14 July 2015 in Vienna between Iran and the P5-1 (the five permanent members of the UN Security Council – China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States – plus Germany) with the European Union.